The Seneca Falls Meeting
In 1848, the first Women’s Rights convention was held, in Seneca Falls, N. Y. Outside of the Culture of Close friends (Quakers), females were often denied the opportunity to speak in abolitionist conferences. The ladies rights movement produced many outspoken opposing team of slavery, including Elizabeth Cody Stanton and Susan B. Anthony. In fact , ladies equality and abolition started to be inextricably associated in the minds of various Southerners. In the 20th hundred years, that lurking animosity practically defeated the constitutional modification giving girls the right to election.
Although Delaney’s planned African colony failed, in 1849 Great Britain recognized the Africa colony of Liberia like a sovereign point out. It had been founded in 1822 as a nest for free-born blacks, freed slaves and mulattoes (mixed race) through the United States. Numerous Americans whom opposed captivity (including Abraham Lincoln for a time and the above mentioned Delany) experienced that the two races could never live successfully with each other, and the ideal hope for Negroes was to returning them to liberty in Africa. However , the slave operate between The african continent and the American Hemisphere (the Caribbean and South America) had under no circumstances ended, and several American ship owners and captains had been enjoying anything of a golden era of slave-trading as the U. T. and The european countries looked the other approach. Even if separated slaves was sent to Africa, many could have wound up last slavery southern of the United States. Simply in the late 1850s did The united kingdom step up their anti-slavery adjustment on the excessive seas, leading America to boost its work somewhat.
If the federal government exceeded a second, much more stringent fugitive slave act in 1850, several claims responded by simply passing personal liberty laws. The following season, Sojourner Real truth (Isabella Baumfree) gave a now-famous speech, Ain’t We a Woman, inch at the Ladies Rights tradition in Akron, Ohio. Delivered a servant in Nyc, she went away from her owner following she experienced she had contributed enough to him. In the late 1840s, she determined a memoir, The Story of Sojourner Truth: A Northern Slave, published simply by Garrison in 1850. Your woman began to tour, speaking against slavery and in favor of women’s legal rights.
Uncle Tom’s Log cabin
During the 1830s and 1840s, the abolitionist movement distributed millions of antislavery newspaper publishers and essays in Upper cities (shipments to spots in the Southern region were usually intercepted by authorities and destroyed). A lot of the essays and articles contained in this materials included vivid appeals for the abolishment of captivity, helping the movement improve in the North. But the single most important part of antislavery literature to emerge during the mid-1800s was a story calledUncle Tom’s Cabinwritten by Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811 1896).
Initially published throughout several months in 1851 within a magazine called theNational TimeStowe’s novel came out in publication form in March 1852.Granddad Tom’s Cabininformed the story of three Southern slaves Tom, Avoi, and Eliza living under the cruel hand of your white slaveowner named Bob Legree. It was one of the first performs of American literary works to illustrate black persons as human beings with the same desires, dreams, and frailties as white people.
Stowe’s dramatic history captured the imagination of thousands of viewers all across the North. A lot more than three hundred 1000 copies in the book were sold in the year following their publication, and stage variations of the history attracted record crowds. YetGranddad Tom’s Vacation cabinwas far more than a bestselling story. Its interpretation of black nobility and the evils of slavery came thousands of extra people to the abolitionist trigger. By portraying slaves since sympathetic men and women, Christians susceptible to slaveholders who have split up families and set bloodhounds on blameless mothers and children, Stowe’s melodrama offered the abolitionist message an effective human appeal, published Eric Foner and Olivia Mahoney inA home Divided: America in the Associated with Lincoln.
People inside the South had been very crucial of Stowe’s book. That they complained that she high the punishments that blacks received and insisted that she did not provide her readers with a true face of captivity. But their accusations were drowned out by the praise that Stowe received elsewhere.Uncle Tom’s Cabinremained a very popular book in the North throughout the 1850s. Most people believe that it do more to aid the cause of abolitionism than some other work of American literature. Actually when President Abraham Lincoln subsequently (1809 1865) achieved Stowe in the early days from the Civil War, he reportedly called her the little lady whom wrote the book that made this big war! inches
The Underground Railroad
One of the valuable weapons that the abolitionist movement used in its warfare against slavery was the apparent Underground Train. This was the name given to a secret network of free blacks and whites who helped slaves get away from their masters and gain freedom in the Northern Us and in Canada, where captivity was prohibited. The Underground Railroad system consisted of a series of barns and homes known as safe houses or depots that ran from the South up into the North. The cost-free blacks and whites who also helped runaway slaves generate it from safe property to the next had been called conductors or stationmasters. The whole number of errant slaves who have rode the Underground Railroad to flexibility is unknown, but historians estimate that as many as 60 thousand blacks may reach the free of charge states or perhaps Canada through this method.
An early version with the Underground Railroad was made in the 1780s by Quakers and other cathedral groups, however the network did not become a significant force until the 1830s. At that time, the developing abolitionist movements pumped fresh energy and resources in to the network, and increasing numbers of errant slaves used it to escape from your South.
Blacks living in the North were largely accountable for the success of the Underground Railroad. These active supporters and workers included free blacks who had purchased their freedom from their masters and moved North, as well as past slaves just like Frederick Douglass who, following successfully getting away themselves, endangered their lives and flexibility time after time in order to help other slaves. Essentially the most well known of the dark-colored conductors was Harriet Tubman (c. 1820 1913), an steered clear of slave whom made 19 dangerous excursions back into servant territory to assist more than three hundred runaways gain their freedom. White abolitionists aided the effort as well, though they understood they would end up being harshly punished if their activities were found out. For example , a Maryland minister named Charles T. Torrey, who helped hundreds of runaways escape, passed away in a express penitentiary following being jailed for his activities. One more white abolitionist named Calvin Fairbanks was imprisoned pertaining to seventeen years for his efforts on behalf of runaway slaves.
The men and ladies who managed the Underground Railroad were brave, but their courage was matched simply by that of the fugitive slaves. Many of these runaways had by no means traveled more than a few miles in the plantation or perhaps home by which they toiled, and they understood that they would be beaten, whipped, or perhaps even slain if they were recaptured. However thousands of slaves dashed for freedom each year during the mid-1800s, traveling through unfamiliar area by evening with the knowledge that angry slavecatchers might be only minutes to their rear.
Most errant slaves whom escaped from your South lived in slave claims that bordered the North, like Baltimore, Kentucky, and Virginia. Although it was harmful for slaves from these kinds of states to try escape, they were doing not have traveling nearly as far as slaves via Alabama or Mississippi to get to soil where slavery had not been permitted. Actually some errant slaves from your Deep Southern remained in the area since they figured that they probably would not be able to make it all the best way to the North. Instead, some fled to large Southern cities like Charleston hoping of burning into the free black inhabitants that were living there. Others hid in remote locations where people lived. One particular spot was your Florida Everglades, where fugitive slaves had been aided by the Seminole Indians who made their house there. Finally, some slaves from the Deep South found refuge in Mexico, wherever slavery had been outlawed.
Errant slaves became a big issue for the South through the 1830s before the Civil Conflict began in 1861, despite the fact that slave states took many measures to quit them. Southern communities structured groups of white colored citizens referred to as slave patrols that roamed the country. These patrols were made to capture fugitives and frighten slaves who also might be thinking of running away. Southern reps also was adamant that the North enforce national fugitive servant laws. The primary fugitive slave law employed by the Southern region was one which had been approved in 1793. This regulation, known as the Fugitive Slave Rules, was essentially a stronger version of your fugitive slave clause that were included in the U. S. Cosmetic. It acceptable slaveholders to recapture meandering slaves surviving in America’s totally free states and compelled Northern courts and legal officials to help the slaveowners inside their efforts. What the law states also managed to get illegal for everyone to hinder slaveholders seeking to regain control over their property.
By late 1830s, however , it was clear that numerous fugitive slaves using the Subterranean Railroad were able to evade the slave patrols and avoid slavecatchers sent North to access them. The job of recapturing runaway slaves was made even more complicated for slaveholders in 1842, when the U. S. Best Court manufactured a lording it over that infuriated the Southern. In a circumstance calledPrigg v. Pennsylvaniathe The courtroom decided a slaveholder could still seize and recapture his slave [in a free state], whenever they can do it without any breach from the peace, or any type of illegal violence. However the Court’s decision also mentioned that the Upper states did not have to help Southerners retrieve escaped slaves if they were doing not want to. Several condition legislatures in the North rapidly passed laws that ascertained that slavecatchers would not receive any the help of state departments or officials.
ThePrigg v. Pennsylvaniaruling outraged Southerners mainly because they understood that fugitive slaves who escaped for the North independently or throughout the Underground Train would be very difficult to capture without help coming from Northern officials. Southern lawmakers immediately tried to pass a difficult new fugitive slave rules, insisting the Supreme Court’s ruling was obviously a violation with their property privileges. Their marketing campaign for a new law at some point resulted in the controversial Meandering Slave Act of 1850, part of the Give up of 1850. This law gave Southerners sweeping fresh powers to retrieve steered clear of slaves and legally bound Northerners to help in those initiatives.
By 1850, however , the Underground Train had currently done a whole lot of damage towards the Southern captivity system. Completely enabled thousands of black individuals to escape to Canada and also the free declares of the North United States. In addition , it supplied invaluable assistance to the overall abolitionist movement. While runaway slaves made homes for themselves since free blacks, their explanations of slavery and their impressive stories of escape convinced countless white Northerners from the worthiness from the abolitionist cause. Given this state of affairs, passage of the 1850 Meandering Slave Act proved to be a hollow triumph for the South. Getting escaped slaves remained a horrible task also after the law was approved, and the Action further increased Northern compassion for blacks trapped inside the Southern slave system.
John Brown: Abolitionism’s Fiery Crusader
The Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 allowed the residents of those territories to determine on their own whether the state would be slave or cost-free. Proponents of both factions poured into the Kansas Terrain, with either side trying to gain supremacy, frequently through physical violence. After pro-slavery groups assaulted the town of Lawrence in 1856, a radical abolitionist named John Brown led his followers in retaliation, killing five pro-slavery settlers. The place became referred to as Bleeding Kansas.
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Dred Scott V. Sanford
The 1857 decision of the U. H. Supreme Court in Dred Scott v. Sanford denied citizenship to anyone of African blood and kept the Missouri Compromise of 1820 to become unconstitutional. Although Southern declares had been transferring laws prohibiting Negro citizenship and further reducing the rights even of freemen of color (Virginia in 1857 prohibited slaves from smoking cigarettes and by standing on sidewalks, among other restrictions), 1 Northern condition after one more had been passing laws granting citizenship with their black occupants. The Court’s findings upended that, as well as the ruling furious many Northerners. Abraham Lincoln revived his own political profession, coming out of a self-imposed semi-retirement to speak out against the Dred Scott decision.
The year 1859 saw two events that have been milestones inside the history of captivity and abolition in America. The ship Clotilde landed in Mobile, Alabama. Though the échange of slaves had been unlawful in America seeing that 1808, Clotilde carried 110 to one hundred sixty African slaves. The last slave ship ever to area in the United States, this clearly proven how lax the observance of the anti-importation laws was.
Resistance to abolitionism in the North
Convinced that Southerners would never abandon slavery willingly, North abolitionists concentrated much of their particular attention upon fellow Northerners. They hoped to influence the residents of the Northern states to force the South to remove slavery. Yet even though slavery no longer persisted in the North, bigotry against black persons was still prevalent throughout the location. Free blacks in the North endured all kinds of discrimination in the areas of housing, education, and legal rights. Additionally , many white-colored Northerners feared that the annulation of captivity might jeopardize their own economic wellbeing. Poor white employees worried that emancipated blacks would arise from the Southern and consider their careers. Rich Upper merchants who also conducted business in the Southern thought that cessation might minimize their profits. Finally, metric scale system living in the North had been concerned that abolitionist activities would affect the stability with the Union by itself.
As a result, the moment leading abolitionists like William Lloyd Garrison and Theodore Dwight Welds first talked out against slavery inside the early and mid-1830s, assault was typically directed against them by Northern employees and businessmen. Printing engages and other tools used by abolitionists were damaged, and mob attacks against abolitionist events became quite common. In 1835, a mafia in Boston, Massachusetts, pulled Garrison throughout the streets and nearly lynched (hanged) him. On one more occasion, antiabolitionist protestors rioted for several times in New York City during which dark neighborhoods were terrorized and abolitionist chapels were vandalized.
Despite the dangers of speaking out, Northern abolitionists refused to down again. Important abolitionist organizations such as the Female Anti-Slavery Society plus the American AntiSlavery Society (both established in 1833) little by little gathered newbies. By 1840, an estimated hundred thousand Northerners had joined hundreds of companies devoted to the abolishment of slavery. The membership included thousands of white colored men, but free blacks such as David Jones and Frederick Douglass accounted for significant amounts of the abolitionist movement’s energy and course. Another important way to obtain strength to get the abolitionist cause was white females. In fact , lots of the women who would later become leading recommends of could rights in America such as Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815 1902), Lucretia Coffin Mott (1793 1880), and siblings Sarah Grimk(1792 1873) and Angelina Emily Grimk(1805 1879) first became see active by working for the emancipation of slaves.
Slaves are poor beings
This kind of argument says that regardless if slavery is definitely cruel and degrading, slaves are not totally human and so their suffering is as ethically important or unimportant since the battling of domestic animals and they do not have any rights that could justify the abolition of slavery.
Some individuals take the argument further and say that slaves are creatures who are really inferior that they deserve to become enslaved.
This argument features often progressed into racism to justify the enslavement of certain inhabitants groups – some of the defenders of the Ocean slave trade argued that slavery was your proper place for people of African ancestry.
These quarrels have been employed in very recent years to justify enslaving particular racial teams.
This number of arguments can be nowadays regarded as completely misdirected.
The climb of the abolitionists
In the years immediately following the Missouri Compromise of 1820, which held the United States similarly balanced between slave and nonslave claims, neither the North neither the Southern region showed very much interest in the topic of slavery, since it often induced anger and bitterness whenever it was talked about. In the 1830s, though, abolitionism once again started to be a subject of intense argument as a fresh generation of antislavery voices made themselves heard. Although unlike previous abolitionists, who have tried to negotiate a progressive end to slavery, a number of these men and women strongly called for immediate emancipation of slaves and racial equality. Leading abolitionists included correspondent William Lloyd Garrison (1805 1879), author Lydia Maria Kid (1802 1880), business partners and brothers Arthur Tappan (1786 1865) and Lewis Tappan (1788 1873), writer Frederick Douglass (c. 1818 1895), article writer Theodore Dwight Weld (1803 1895), and individual rights leader Wendell Phillips (1811 1884).
A lot of the leading abolitionists of this period were well guided by their spiritual convictions. The 1820s and 1830s had been decades in which religion had taken on elevated importance in the lives of folks all across area. During this time, known as the Second Wonderful Awakening, many religious frontrunners told all their congregations that they can could achieve salvation because they build lives of morality through speaking away against bad thing. Since captivity loomed as the most sinful practice in America in numerous people’s heads, abolitionists bombarded the company with higher passion and energy than previously.
But even though the Second Wonderful Awakening fundamentally changed the lives of many Americans, the recharged abolitionist movement achieved strong level of resistance wherever the followers attempted to spread it is message of freedom and equality. Naturally, resistance to this message was strongest in the American Southern. During the 1830s and 1840s, Southern whites came to view the Northern abolitionists as probably the most serious threat with their way of life that they can had ever before faced. Even though the majority of white colored households would not own any kind of slaves, strong Southern slaveholders had built comfortable lives for themselves. Unichip, who had superb influence with other whites inside their communities, would not want to make any kind of changes that might threaten all their wealth and position. Various poor whites wanted to retain slavery, also, because of long-lasting racism as well as the realization that slavery’s continued existence guaranteed that they would not occupy the minimum rung in Southern culture. Finally, The southern part of whites hated the increase in abolitionist speak because they will thought that it may spark a bloody servant rebellion.
Concerned and angered by Northern abolitionists who also charged which the very footings of The southern area of culture were evil and corrupt, defenders of slavery adopted a defiant situation. They believed that Northerners would not end up being so wanting to abolish slavery if their individual regional economic system depended on that. Southerners as well embraced arguments that captivity actually helped to civilize African savages, plus some slaveholders actually used scriptural passages in the Bible to justify enslavement of their guy men. Upper abolitionists whom attempted to propagate their message in The southern area of states had been attacked and driven from the region. In addition , Southern says passed many laws created to prevent North antislavery groups from talking about abolitionism prove land. In 1835, for instance , Georgia exceeded a law imposing the death charges on anyone who published components that might trigger slave unrest.
At the same time which the South had taken steps to protect itself from the speeches and literature of Northern abolitionists, the Southern region also achieved it impossible due to the own citizens to question the slave-dependent society by which they were living without risking their flexibility or all their lives. Some states approved laws designed to silence antislavery voices inside their borders. In 1836, for example , Virginia handed a law that made it a crime for anyone to advocate (speak in favor of) abolition. Such laws almost never had to be unplaned, however , since Southerners who have expressed uncertainties about slavery learned that these kinds of statements force them in great danger off their own neighbors. By the later 1830s, whites in the American South were defending captivity and objecting to Northern interference with the way of life with one usa voice.
Words to Know
Abolitionistspeople who worked to end captivity
Colonizationa task in which an existing country creates a new community or express in a foreign land
Emancipationthe take action of releasing people via slavery or perhaps oppression
Quakersa religious group that highly opposed captivity and physical violence of any sort
Subway Railroada key organization of free blacks and whites who helped slaves escape from their masters and gain flexibility in the North United States and Canada
Harriet Beecher Stowe: Abolitionist and Author
In 1852, what may have been the seminal function of the annulation movement occurred. Harriet Beecher Stowe, a great abolitionist who had come to learn a number of escaped slaves whilst she was living in Cincinnati oh., authored the novel Uncle Tom’s Cottage. It presented a scathing view of Southern captivity, filled with melodramatic scenes just like that of the slave Eliza escaping with her baby across the frozen Ohio Water:
The huge green fragment of ice on what she alighted pitched and creaked while her pounds came into it but the girl stayed there not a minute. With crazy cries and desperate energy she hopped to another but still another cake; stumbling, leaping, slipping springing up-wards again! Her shoes are gone her stockings cut via her feet while blood marked every step; but your woman saw nothing, felt absolutely nothing, till dimly, as in ideal, she saw the Ohio side and a man supporting her up the bank.
Critics pointed out that Stowe had never been to the South, although her new became a bestseller inside the North (banned in the South) and the most beneficial bit of promoción to come out of the abolitionist motion. It galvanized many who had been sitting around the sidelines. Apparently, when Leader Abraham Lincoln subsequently met Stowe during the Municipal War this individual said to her, So if you’re the little female who started this big battle.
The Abolition Movements Of The American Revolution
After the American Wave, numerous levels of slaves were freed and began to exhibit their indignation towards captivity and racial discrimination. Abolitionists believed that slavery was immoral and illegal and supported these types of ideas with all the two most significant laws in those days, the Bible and the Constitution. Although the ideals between abolitionists were identical, their means of bringing slavery to an end were very different. The later 1830’s helped bring the variation of tactics between radical
The Dred Scott Decision, And Abraham Lincoln
Through the early 17th century slavery was being applied in the To the south for over 350 years. They were forced to job the production of tobacco, plants, and later organic cotton. When the organic cotton grin was evented in 1793 combined with the growing require product in Europe. The slaves came into existence a use for the To the south and that formed a foundation because of their economy. Going into the overdue 18th hundred years there were problems with slavery and perhaps they are the abolitionist movement, the Missouri Give up, the Dred Scott Decision
Slavery Involves The New Globe
African captivity began in North America in 1619 for Jamestown, Va. The 1st American-built slave ship, Desire, launched from Massachusetts in 1636, beginning the slave trade between Britain’s American colonies and Africa. From the beginning, some white colonists were uncomfortable with the notion of slavery. At the time of the American Revolution up against the English Top, Delaware (1776) and Va (1778) prohibited importation of African slaves; Vermont started to be the to begin the 13 colonies to abolish captivity (1777); Rhode Island restricted taking slaves from the colony (1778); and Pennsylvania started gradual emancipation in 1780.
The Baltimore Society intended for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery as well as the Relief of Free Negroes while others Unlawfully Saved in Bondage was founded in 1789, the same year the former colonies replaced all their Articles of Confederation with all the new Constitution, in in an attempt to form an even more perfect union.
If the U. H. Constitution was written, this made zero specific mention of slavery, but it provided for the return of fugitives (which encompassed crooks, indentured maids and slaves). It allowed each servant within a point out to be counted as three-fifths of a person for the purpose of identifying population and representation in the home of Associates (Article My spouse and i, Section several, says representation and direct taxation will probably be determined based upon the number of free persons, which include those guaranteed to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of most other individuals. )
The Constitution forbidden importation of slaves, to begin with in 1808, but again were able to do so without needing the words slave or slavery. Slave trading started to be a capital offense in 1819. Presently there existed an over-all feeling that slavery might gradually pass on. Improvements in technology the cotton gin and sewing machine increased the demand pertaining to slave labor, however , in order to produce even more cotton in Southern declares. By the 1830s, many Southerners had altered from, Slavery is a necessary evil, to Slavery is a positive good. inches The establishment existed since it was God’s will, a Christian duty to lift the African away of barbarism while continue to exerting control over his animal passions.
Harriet Tubman and The Subway Railroad
Whilst Sojourner Real truth, Douglass, Delaney and others had written and spoke to end slavery, a former servant named Harriet Tubman, nee Harriet Ross, was definitely leading slaves to liberty. After escaping from bondage herself, she built repeated excursions into Dixie to help other folks. Believed to have helped several 300 slaves to escape, she was observed for alert those the lady was aiding that she would shoot any of them who converted back, because they would endanger herself while others she was assisting.
Tubman was a real estate agent of the Subterranean Railroad, a method of safe houses and way stations that privately helped runaways. The trip might start by hiding in your home, barn or other site owned with a Southerner in opposition to slavery, and continuing on your travels until getting safe haven in a free state or Canada. Those who come to Canada would not have to fear being delivered under the Meandering Slave Action. Several communities and persons claim to have created the term Underground Railroad. In the the southern part of section of declares on the north bank with the Ohio Lake, a reverse underground railroad operated; blacks in those states had been kidnapped, whether or not they had ever been slaves or perhaps not, and taken To the south to sell by using a series of clandestine locations.
Find out more about Harriet TubmanLearn more about the Underground Railroad
Abolitionists Invoke A Higher Law
Abolitionists became increasingly strident in their condemnations of slave owners and the peculiar institution of slavery. Often, at Fourth of July gatherings of abolition societies, they reportedly used the occasion to denounce the U.S. Constitution as a covenant with death, and an agreement with hell. Many of them came to believe in higher law, that a moral commitment to ending slavery took precedent over observing those parts of the Constitution that protected slavery and, in particular, they refused to obey the Fugitive Slave Act. Slave owners or their representatives traveling north to reclaim captured runaways were sometimes set upon on abolitionists mobs; even local lawmen were sometimes attacked. In the South, this fueled the belief that the North expected the South to obey all federal laws but the North could pick and choose, further driving the two regions apart.
The very first abolitionist demonstration in America took place in 1688. A group of brave Quakers gathered in Germantown, Pennsylvania, to voice their religious objections to the slave trade. At first, few people paid much attention to the Quakers’ calls for an end to slavery. During the eighteenth century, however, a growing number of people living in the American colonies looked at slavery with a more critical eye. Free blacks like Episcopal church leader Absalom Jones (1746 1818), businessman James Forten (1766 1842), and Methodist bishop Richard Allen (1760 1831) lobbied tirelessly for the freedom of their race, and some white people religious leaders and politicians as well as ordinary citizens expressed reservations about the peculiar institution, as slavery was sometimes called. Slavery remained common across the colonies, but discomfort with the practice became more evident.
By the end of the 1700s, when America became an independent nation, slavery in the North was fading away. Even some wealthy Southern slaveholders expressed hope that slavery might pass out of existence some day. In the early 1800s, however, the South’s reliance on slavery increased as white landholders turned to the labor-intensive crop of cotton for their livelihood. This development was a bitter disappointment to people opposed to slavery.
John Brown’s Raid On Harpers Ferry
Nearly 1,000 miles northeast of Mobile, on the night of October 16, 1859, John Brown the radical abolitionist who had killed proslavery settlers in Kansas led 21 men in a raid to capture the U.S. arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia). Though Brown denied it, his plan was to use the arsenal’s weapons to arm a slave uprising. He and his followers, 16 white men and five black ones, holed up in the arsenal after they were discovered, and were captured there by a group of U.S. Marines commanded by an Army lieutenant colonel, Robert E. Lee. Convicted of treason against Virginia, Brown was hanged December 2.
Initial reaction in the South was that this was the work of a small group of fanatics, but when Northern newspapers, authors and legislators began praising him as a martyr a poem by John Greenleaf Whittier eulogizing Brown was published in the New York Herald Tribune less than a month after the execution their actions were taken as further proof that Northern abolitionists wished to carry out genoc />Find out about John Brown’s Raid On Harpers Ferry