Physics of Braking Systems

The Physics of Braking Devices

By James Walker, Junior. of scR motorsports

Copyright © june 2006 StopTech LLC

Author's please note: mechanical devices operating in the physical community are neither 100% useful nor are they capable of instantaneous changes in state. Therefore, the equations and associations presented here are estimated of these braking components the best way as we understand their mechanizations and physical attributes. Wherever appropriate, several examples of constraining conditions and first inefficiencies have been identified, yet please tend not to assume these kinds of partial lists to be all-encompassing or defined in their skills.

The Conservation of Energy

The braking system is out there to convert the energy of the vehicle in motion into thermal energy, more commonly termed as heat. By basic physics, the kinetic energy of a body in motion is defined as:

Kinetic Energy =

one particular


× mv × vv


where mv = the mass (commonly thought of as weight) of the vehicle in motion where vv = the velocity (commonly generally known as speed) from the vehicle in motion

Ideally, this energy is completely assimilated by the braking system. While this is not entirely the truth, for a blocking event in maximum deceleration most of the vehicle's kinetic energy is converted into thermal energy as defined by: one particular


× m versus × sixth is v v ⇒ mb × C s × ∆Tb


where mb = the mass from the braking system elements which absorb energy wherever Cp = the specific high temperature of the braking system components which usually absorb energy (a frequent based on material properties)

in which ∆Tb = the temperatures rise experienced by the braking components which in turn absorb energy

Note that for most single-stop events, the brake discs serve as the principal energy fascinating, gripping, riveting components.

It follows then simply that the heat rise of the braking system is directly proportionate to the mass of the vehicle in motion. More importantly most likely, the heat rise from the braking system is directly proportionate to the square of the speed of the car in movement. In other words, doubling speed can theoretically quadruple brake temps: In practical application, tire rolling resistance, streamlined drag, grade resistance, and other mechanical failures will also play an energy-absorbing role, nevertheless value continues to be placed in establishing this primary relationship like a limiting condition. The Brake pedal Pedal

The brake your pedal exists to multiply the force exerted by the driver's foot. By elementary statics, the force increase will probably be equal to the driver's utilized force multiplied by the button ratio of the brake your pedal assembly:

Fbp = Fd × L2 ÷ L1

where Fbp = the force result of the brake pedal assembly

where Fd = the force applied to the pedal pad by driver

wherever L1 sama dengan the distance through the brake pedal arm revolves to the end result rod clevis attachment

where L2 = the distance through the brake coated arm revolves to the braking mechanism pedal pad

Note that this kind of relationship presumes 100% physical efficiency of all components in the brake pedal assembly. In practical application, the mechanical deflection of pieces and scrubbing present in physical interfaces helps prevent this condition. The Master Cyndrical tube

It is the useful responsibility in the master tube to convert the force from the braking system pedal assemblage into hydraulic fluid pressure. Assuming incompressible liquids and infinitely stiff hydraulic boats, the pressure generated by the master cyndrical tube will be equal to:

Pmc =



where Pmc = the hydraulic pressure generated by the master cyndrical tube where Amc = the effective area of the master cyndrical tube hydraulic piston

Note that this relationship assumes 100% hydraulic efficiency coming from all components inside the master cylinder assembly. In practical application, liquid properties, seal off friction, and compliance the physical components prevents this condition.

Brake Smooth, Brake Pipes, and Tubes

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